Submitted by Dan Dooré on Thursday, May 17, 2018 - 15:39.
|Menu||Simon Cooke František Fuka|
|Magazine||Piracy on Sam, Info on samples|
|Freviews||Prince of Persia, Mouse Interface, Outwrite, Sam DICE|
|Megablast||Simon Cooke||Sampled Bomb the Bass tune|
|Star Trek||Simon Cooke||Gfx and samples from the show|
|The vortex||Ian Slavin||Spiralling tunnel effect|
|Big sprite||Ian Slavin||Large running sprite|
|MC pt 7||Steve Taylor||Search: “MC 7” Gfx routines, screen enlarge/reduce|
|Kind of magic||Masters of Magic||Scroller/demo|
|Warper||William McGugan||Screen manipulator|
|Sam jotter||William McGugan||Word processor|
|Sam pointer||William McGugan||Procs to produce a basic WIMP|
|Bar menu creator||Colin Jordan||Useful menu-creating system|
|Dancing fred||William McGugan||Spinning Fred (512k only) (256k version on Fred 14)|
|Scrolly||Richard Robinson||3-layered parallax basic scroller|
|Game key||Chris White||MC keyscanning routine|
The Editorial Greetings to one and all and welcome to another issue sent direct to you from Wales - the land of red dragons and geniuses! Unfortunately, I am running out of programs to include in FRED at this point so please,please send more stuff in. Having said that, this month sees more great programs from Ian Slavin and a relative newcomer proves his talent with the menu you've just seen and a couple of great samples this issue. Simon Cooke has promised there'll be more as soon as he gets the time so that is definetely something to look forward to. About last month - if you got one of the "faulty" issue 11A 's please send it back and I'll replace it with a working version. I'm pleased that no-one has yet moaned about the price-rise but I'm sure someone will eventually.... You can send stuff to me at SAMCO, but please address it to FRED and make sure it gets here during July otherwise I'll have moved back up to Scotland and your letter may never see the light of day. If you have any suggestions for SAM software (conversions included) please write or phone me at SAMCO. News F16 Combat Fighter (programmed by Keith Goodyer) should be finished by the end of July - hopefully for release in mid-August. The game could feature samples whilst playing for those with extra memory. The game can be played in solid 3D vector mode or just 3D colour wireframe mode (to increase speed of play). The game does not need any joysticks (as mentioned in SAMCO's newsletter) although one is recommended. Chris White ( he of Prince Of Persia) is hoping to produce Lemmings after he has finished with Prince but nothing has been decided as yet - you'll just have to wait and see. Sinclair User have seen the light! In one of the next issues, they are including a FOUR PAGE supplement on "The Best Of SAM Software" and a bit on the latest hardware eg the mouse! How do I know what's going into it? Easy! I'm writing it! Revelation have a new series of software planned Unfortunately, I'm forbidden from revealing any details but I can tell you that they'll certainly be classics. BG Services have a coupe modem planned for September release which will be based on the VTX5000. Price : £20-£30 Show Report On the 22nd June at London's Horticultural Halls in Victoria there was yet another All Formats Fair. As many of you will have noticed, these fairs are occuring far too frequently for them to become the success they used to be. This one should have been well attended seeing as it was the last one for the Summer but sadly this was not the case. Only this time,it was not well attended by both the public and exhibitors so the net effect was that I did not make a loss (first time for months!), but for the public it can't have been up to much. Along with Bruce, I was on the SAMCO stand - showing off our new mouse and Prince Of Persia demo. Both went down a treat. Most of "The Welsh Brigade" also put in an appearance behind the stands - Adrian Parker (Blue Alpha) and Paul Thomas (PBT) were both busy talking the day away to all and sundrie ( They even had the privilidge of talking to me !?!) The Supplement crew had a stand as well, selling their latest issue, number 9, as well as the One Meg Walker demo along with Dave's numerous other creations. Show Report ctd He didn't turn up at the last two shows, but Steve Nutting was there at this one - with his pre-release version of the all new SC_Filer (99% m/c!!) as well as managing to sell his £400 printer for only £100!!! FRED was also being sold there but not by me, by Brent Stevens (in return for me selling the SCPDSA stuff a couple of weeks back). He and Rebecca (his "assistant") were also selling other PD stuff as well (for those who couldn't be bothered going) like Enceladus, Turbo and Fastline. Brent had initially planned to have a few blue and white balloons shaped into a disc sort of shape but it so happened to be so(incredibly) hot that they kept bursting every two minutes! So who didn't appear? Quite a few people who are normally there, didn't appear at this one. These include enigma, Garner designs, SD Software, Format, GM_Software, BG Services, Outlet... the list goes on and on (Ariston?). However I think we should arrange that at only selected Shows, all exhibitors will show up and everyone who might go to a show should go to that one - what do you think? Price Rise Last month I announced the price rise of issues ( back issues as well ) to £1.50. I didn't have time to give any reasons so here they are : 1) In case you didn't notice, I have reviewed almost every single product ever released on the coupe and nine times out of ten I have to buy these (at full price) myself which costs a few hundred quid in itself. 2) Partly due to the disaster of the recent shows, I have been left deeply in debt (with a bank manager going slightly mad at me!) and 3) everythin has gone up in price recently due to the VAT increase - although it's just a few pence, it makes one helluva difference on a tigh a budget as I run. So, there is absolutely no reason to moan because FRED is stil the cheapest (pricewise) disc magazine about. Dan Doore recently wrote to me with a note of support - "And what is this! Fred has gone up to £1.50! who cares! It's still the best value for money this side of a smack in the chops with a wet haddock." Thanks Dan - now we know who the Your Sinclair reader is!!!!! Sorry YS. Next month I should be able to bring you some decent subscription offers, like buy ten and pay for thirty. Mr Anon writes! Dear Editor, Although I have read FRED for many issues, this is actually the first time I have put finger to keyboard and have decided to add a little bit of input to this great mag. What is it that has got me writing, do you ask? Well it is a very serious matter indeed .... piracy! I have recently seen a copy of the Enigma SAM Software Club Newsletter, where they stated that they knew of the existence of a team of pirates, operating in Birmingham, and they also stated that if piracy carried on to the extent it has been, and they continued losing as much as they believed they were - that they would pull out of writing SAM Software altogether!! If this isn't bad enough, I have recently heard, through a pen-pal, of a large scale piracy operation, going on within an established User's Group overseas! Although I have no details on this matter, it seems that certain individuals are offering just about every single game and utility, that has been released on our beloved machine so far! Not to mention various Disk Mags, etc. Mr Anon Writes more Now,it could be said by some people,that what software that is available for the SAM, is far too over-priced. In some cases, I would certainly agree. However, in comparison with all other well-known machines there are much fewer Coupes about, so those people who dish out the rights to licenses, or even those who come up with original software, have got to cover their backs with the price of the software. In some cases, it must be said, that the games are not worth it. In other cases, the opposite is true - however, no one is going to produce ANY software FULL STOP if they think they are going to make a loss from it! So,it's down to you.Do you want to see software for the SAM or not? If so, and you know of any of these B******s (please dont cut out the language Colin, I don't see why this SCUM should warrent any manners!), then forget about any false morals about "lagging" etc, after all these SCUM have none, so why should you? Just give either Enigma, or SAMCo a call. They will treat any information in confidence, and that they will do their utmost to stop these MORONS from destroying the future of the future of this wonderful computer! Mr Anon continues Another thing, if any FRED readers are put off buying any of Enigma's SAM games, due to the price, then invest in joining their software club. Not only do you get reasonable discounts on software and hardware, a reasonable newsletter thingy, but the dosh will hopefully go into developing more software! It will also help them judge how many people are dedicated to buying their software! Ok, I've told you what I think about this- now tell Colin what you think! "The Terminator" P.S. That may be a alias, but I would seriously like to apply the methods of the original, to any pirates I find in action! I doubt that any FREDster's are stupid enough to envolve themselves in this kind of thing! Are we? Thank you TT, I can't really add anything because that just about sums up my feelings on the subject as well. - Ed . Letters - Michael Barker I was glad to hear that there might be a 128k emulator in the future, if this item comes to be we will be able to use more of the recent software, but, what if software houses decide that as we can use 128k programs,they think that we would not bother with coupe specific software, then we will be as we are now, ie,waiting and hoping for even a hint of software, I can't wait for Prince Of Persia to be released, tho' it shold be out by the time you read this (if this letter gets into FRED ) Has anybody **************************************************************** listening!)outlet issue 46? Why pay £25 for the A***a version when you get it free on a coupe disc magazine? Just as FRED brought you Tetris, aren't we coupe owners a lucky lot? I was surprised to see my last letter in issue 11 (fame at last!) but I supose it was included to fill in a few bytes going spare in a great double issue (nice one Colin) but no more double issues if we have to wait 2 months between issues. Well that's it for now (you mean there might be more?) so Bye Bye Letters - Dave Ledbury [redacted] Dear Colin, Due to thousands of commitments, with ZAT, this is my first letter to FRED - so let me just get the obligitory creeping bits out of the way first! FRED is certainly one of the best disk magazines I have ever seen! It is humorous, without being pathetic. It is serious, without being heavy reading, and it is also extremely original in content and presentation. It is definately worth the patheticly small price that you charge! Now, a little word or two... A) There are many talented programmers, who read FRED, with abilities ranging from normal to super-normal abilities. What I would like to do is try to get a list of any talented MC programmers, who would consider getting involved in any Letters - Dave Ledbury programming odds & sods. This is purely to find out WHO is willing and able. B) As of yet, no one has actually done a survey to find out what people REALLY want for their Coupe! Okay, so many people love games - but which ones, and if not - what do they like? What I would like, is if anyone could take their time to answer a few little questions, then I can pass on the information to some of the many people involved on SAM development projects. 1) Do you play any games? If so, how frequently? 2) Which type/s of games (if any) do you preffer? 3) Which games do you own? 4) What titles, or game types, would you like to see? 5) What's your prefered price range?(A sensible figure please!) 6) Do you care about fancy packaging, or not? 7) Have you any strong views on this subject? Letters - Dave Ledbury 8) Do you ever use any utilities? If so, how frequently? 9) Which type of utilities (etc) do you use? 10) What utilities (etc) would you like to see? 11) What is your prefered price range? 12) Any other views on this subject? 13) Do you own any hardware? If so, what? How often is it used? 14) What would you like to see developed? 15) What is your ideal price range? 16) Any other views? 17) Which fanzines do you read? 18) What areas of computing interest you the most? 19) What are your opinions on any fanzines, etc, that you read? 20) Do you think that an independant "Fanzine Federation" (as opposed to "Team SAM") may help to improve existing mags? 21) How long have you had your Coupe? Is it your first computer? Letters - Dave Ledbury Okay, I know there are one or two questions here, but all the answers could be useful, as they should provide useful info to any party developing, or planning to develop SAM Software. Little point Colin, I know you object to calling the Coupe,"SAM" - personally, I think it is lot friendlier than some things, that some of these morons in the press have said about this wonderful little beastie. After all, no matter what the computer is called, we know that it's bloomin' wonderful! Don't we? Anyway, I'll shut up now, as I am sure that Colin has some goodies for you to read now! Bye for now David Ledbury - Deputy & Technical Editor - ZAT Thanks David, I'm sure all the FRED readers would simply love to write to you with their completed questionnaires, I myself MIGHT even jot down a few notes for you to spend hours trying to read my awful handwriting - Ed. Letters - Dan Doore Dear Colin, If you want to get "Spinthing" to work, change the following line in the "bits" menu : 60 if a=1 then MODE 4 : Load "Spinthing" That should get it to work - the reason it goes funny like that is because when it flips between screens, one is MODE 3 and the other is MODE 4. But if you run it from the command line everything is OK Polyhedra does not work either. Omit any clear statements and change : FOR R=1 TO 90 to : FOR R=1 TO 75 I hope this will be of help to you. Prince Of Persia was mentioned in a previous FRED issue. THANKS DAN, GUESS I MESSED UP REAL GOOD EH? P.O.P WAS ONLY MENTIONED BY THE SHADOW - SAYING HE'D LIKE TO SEE IT !!!! Twelve issues later, and there are still goodies to be got? Yes, I guess I've been rather hard at it - collecting all this marvellous software for a second or two. Anyway, less of my pains - onto the juicy stuff. Simon "cookie" Cook has sent in a couple of rather juicy samples - one called MegaBlast and the other called Star Trek - these are rather amazing so I'll leave you to see for yourself. Please note, although all the contents of this disc have been released onto Public Domain, they still remain copyright of FRED and anyone found ignoring PD laws will be prosecuted - ie anyone selling parts of this disc OR without my ( AND the author's ) permission. Ian Slavin brings a very wierd Vortex scrolly thing to be hypnotised or something at, as well as an example of the animation that it's possible to achieve in BASIC in Big Sprite. Steve Taylor brings us more on the much-conversed, but little actually done subject of machine code. Disc Goodies As I know you all love the Masters Of Magic's stuff (!) they've sent in another demo thing for you to have a gander at. William McGugan has been busy this month - not only has he sent a warper program which "warps" the screens in any way you wish ( example in Screen$ ) but he has done another word processor type thing (I'm getting one of these every two months now! Not that I'm complaining though!) which you should find is documented upon loading. He has also developed a pointer routine (which I will try to convert to the mouse for FRED13) which is pretty useful for your own routines. Back comes the adverts section!!!! In the bits 'n' Bobs, we have a wide selection of stuff, ranging from Colin Jordan's menu creator to a BASIC parallax scroller from Richard Robinson to a magnificent FRED demo (512K only - sorry!) from William McGugan and a m/c keyscan routine from Chris White (Prince Of Persia). Unfortunately, there don't seem to be any "unlisted" freebies that many of you have discovered on various FRED issues this month! Or maybe just one!!!!!! The End Thanks to : Simon Cooke Ian Slavin Si Hindle Andy Jones Dave Ledbury E. Dybacz Andy Moore Steve Taylor Chris White Dan Doore William McGugan Colin Jordan Richard Robinson All at SAMCO Only Joking!!!! Goodbye, my friends, perhaps we shall meet again sometime in the future, but then again, perhaps not. ie. see you next month!!! Issue 13 (phew!) out the first Sunday (maybe) in August for the measly sum of £1.50. Order now - or order later - I don't care. Please continue reading for some great articles on various subjects after this, that are far too speshialized for inclusion before the Credits page. Happy reading. SC SONICALLY SPEAKING..... Right then... You've probably heard the XENON 2 demo on this, and if you've looked on the disc catalogue (and simply divided the file length by 1024), you'll find that a 50 second music demo has taken up only (...wait for it...) 55K!!! Wow! Just think - it beats the hell out of the Kim Wilde demo (more of which later) in storage capacity alone (256k= <25secs). Anyway, down to what this article is about. After hearing the Blink demo on the SCPDSA disc - a disc where I first became acquainted with FRED, in fact - I messed around with it a bit, niggled at the fact that I had only 10 seconds of sample to listen to (I loaded the 512K version into my 256K machine by rewriting its file header). So, I looked at how Monsieur Blink had done it. What Edwin had done was to use a full byte for each slice of a sound wave. Lets explain this: With a sampler, sounds are converted to numbers. Each of these numbers is the position of the speaker (while sounds come from a speaker, it wobbles rapidly). To replay a sample, you play these numbers back 'raw' - i.e. without any frequencies added, just the speaker wobbles - through the sampler or the sound chip, SC SONICALLY SPEAKING (2)..... mimicking the original sound wave. Now for the tricky stuff. The sampler (Blue Alpha's one,any Amiga samplers, and some ST samplers) can fluctuate the speaker between 256 different positions - so to hold a slice of the sample, a whole byte must be used. Now think of this - most people won't have Samplers (or be driving an Amiga sound chip with their Coupe for that matter!), so they have to put the sound out through the internal sound chip. The unfortunate thing about the sound chip is that the digital to analogue conversions (numbers to wobbles) put through it are limited to only 16 different speaker positions. This has the effect of lowering the resolutions of the samples - they sound more grainy and not as sharp as the 256 level ones. But, like all clouds, this one has a silver lining. This simple fact of less resolution means that twice as much sample can be fitted into a byte than with sound meant to go out through the sampler - if my Xenon sample hadn't been squished like this, it would have taken up roughly 110K - a whopper of an amount. If my Star Trek demo is on the disc, you'll see how little you can fit in such a large space when it comes to samples - and these ARE SC SONICALLY SPEAKING (3)..... crunched! Okay then hands up if you can guess why the Star Trek demo takes up more space than the Xenon 2 demo, when the Xenon 2 demo is longer... Give up? Alright then, I'll tell you. Listen to it closely (to tell you the truth, it's very easy to spot) - if you want to go away and listen to it now, fine - I'll still be here when you get back! What you should notice is that some sections are repeated (as they are in the actual record). This lets us cut down on even more space by just storing the basic building blocks of the music in memory, and telling our sample player to play sections of the sample at the right time, letting us build up a large tune in little memory. Right, then. We've had Resolution, Repetition, so for another R, we'll go for Rate. Rate is the speed at which samples are recorded and re-played - the higher the rate, the better quality the sound (e.g. CD sound is recorded at about 40Khz, while most computer samples are recorded at about 16Khz). Rate works in much the same way as the resolution - a CD has only a 2 bit resolution (admittedly this is an encoded signal), but it sounds so clear it's unbelieveable. Until next issue then... SH Si Hindle's WWF Wrestling Update Okay, continuing from last month, here is a comprehensive list of all the "Baddies" in the WWF together with the managers of the WWF. Unfortunately, the glossary of wrestling moves has had to be postponed till next month. Here we go... STOP PRESS!!! MORE "Goodies" 'SUPERFLY' JIMMY SNUKA: Hailing from Fiji, this fighter uses aerial moves as opposed to strength to defeat his opponents. FINISHING MOVE: Superfly Splash. 'THE BIRDMAN' KOKO B.WARE: Quite a boring wrestler - like the Superfly, but not as good. FINISHING MOVE: Ghost-Buster Suplex Now then, back to the planned part of the article... TUGBOAT/TYPHOON: When he was called Tugboat, this character was the Hulkster's best friend. Then, in a battle royal (Loads of wrestlers in the ring at one time and the only way to win is to throw everyone else out over the top rope...) he started on SH Si Hindle's WWF Wrestling Update Hogan. Everyone thought that it was because the fight was every man for himself, but I knew that something was going to happen. At a recent fight when Tugboat and the Bushwackers teamed up against the Nasty Boys and Earthquake, Tugboat started kicking the c**p out of Luke and Butch, making them lose. Tugboat has now renamed himself Typhoon and fights with Earthquake in a tag team called the Natural Disasters. FINISHING MOVE: as Tugboat it was a big splash of the second turnbuckle but I've no idea what Typhoon (or the natural disasters) move is. MR.PERFECT: The current Intercontinental champion (but not for long 'cos Davey Boy's gonna kick his bottom...) and a total moron. FINISHING MOVE: Perfect-Plex. HAKU: Person from Tonga who is dead boring. Doesn't seem to be able to win a match. FINISHING MOVE: Not too sure, 'cos I've never seen him win. I think it's a back kick. SH Si Hindle's WWF Wrestling Update BARBARIAN: Haku's tag team partner and a solo fighter. Same coments as for Haku. FINISHING MOVE: Once again I've never seen him win, butI think it's a Legdrop off the top turnbuckle. IRS (Irwin R. Schyster): Newcomer to the WWF and is everybody's friend - a Taxman. Currently having a go at Rowdy Roddy Piper. FINISHING MOVE: Write-Off EARTHQUAKE: The fattest b*****d in the WWF. Currently the subject of much verbal (And physical, we hope) abuse from Jake 'the Snake' Roberts after he squished Damian the Python. FINISHING MOVE: Earthquake vertical splash. THE UNDERTAKER: This 6'9" giant is having a bit of trouble with the Ultimate Warrior at the moment. A ruthless fighter, and one of my favourites. FINISHING MOVE: Tombtone Sorry, but that's it for this month. This has been written just before the deadline so I've been cut short! goodbye !!!!!!! AM ANDY M'S CLUB SCENE Yo! It's the world's most happening, informative, egotistical, (- that was from Cookie) Club Authority. In other words ME! Andy M. Right, straight to business (as they say)... ALBUMS: COZMIC JAM by Quadrophonia A superlative album from the people who brought you QUADROPHONIA (NO...) and ANASTHASIA (Yup, T99 and Quadrophonia are one and the same). It includes their new brilliant single THE WAVE OF THE FUTURE as well as a remix of QUADROPHONIA which is actually far better than the original. Most of the other tracks are of a similar high standard, although the raps over most of the tunes detract from, rather than compliments the tunes themselves, and four of the so-called-tracks are merely interludes. SCHIZOFRENIA is not a house track, and shouldn't have been included - it's just a piano piece. All in all, definitely recommended if you like this style of music (which reminded me of a lot of 8O8 state, in its style). AM ANDY M'S CLUB SCENE (PART 2) REACTIVATE by various. The definitive collection of hardcore Belgian techno. Although the only well known track is ANASTHASIA, the others are extremely worthwhile, powerful, well composed, hard techno classics. BUY IT. DECODED AND DANCED UP RHYTHMS OF DECONSTRUCTION by various. I've recently shoplifted this club compilation which is obviously designed for a rather short rave. It begins with mainstream club music (such as a remix of FANTASY by Black Box) and evolves into hardcore club tracks (e.g. ANTHEM by N-JOI) with some raunchy tracks (THE DANCE by Eden's Paradise) to get you in a party mood, and finishes off with the traditionally slow dance number (WAREHOUSE REQUIEM by Guru Josh). I'll recommend it to anyone who's throwing a party or who likes club music. One other track, and my favourite alongside ANTHEM, is a hard techno track by Liasions D, entitled FUTURE FJP. It's an audio drug, like CUBIK by 8O8 State, in that one addictive theme is constantly AM ANDY M'S CLUB SCENE (THE BASS GOES ON) hammered into your brain. Like it. AVOID THESE SO CALLED COLLECTIONS OF MUSIC! HARDCORE DANCEFLOOR by various. Although the name promises so much, many of the tracks are commercial, Stock-Aikman-Waterman equivalents of rap/house/ club (yes, MC HAMMER, I'm talking to you!). There are a few worthy tunes (GYPSY WOMAN(LA DA DEE), DEEP IN MY HEART) but in general, this can only be classed as a teeny-boppy compilation. Vanilla Ice's latest album (whatever it's called). This does for rap what Kylie did for Pop. Anyone over 12 seen purchasing this album is one SAD person, and should commit suicide or contact the Samaritans immediately. If you want to hear what rap REALLY sounds like, buy these rapsters' albums: MC Tunes, Silver Bullet, or Terminator X. Hardcore rappin' over hardcore tunes with a hardcore drumbeat, about hardcore topics. (Not endless, meaningless, talentless, brainless, AM ANDY M'S CLUB SCENE (THE CLUBSTER CONTINUES) senseless, pointless, tuneless, monotonous drivel). SINGLES: DOMINATOR by Human Resolve. An aggressive, yet laid back rap delivery with one hell of a powerful and addictive tune make this one of the best records I've heard for months. Excuse me now while I listen to it again before I suffer withdrawal symptoms. .... later .... Ahhhhhhh. That's better. Next... SEVEN WAYS 2 LOVE by Cola Boy WOWWW!From one bangin' tune to another. This is one of the best records I've heard for months. Very addictive club music which knocks the brilliant Gypsy Woman for six. Does for club music what DOMINATOR did for Rap. Once again I feel compelled to play this addictive tune again... Back in a mo'. AM THE CLUBSTER'S CLUB SCENE (ANDY M Continues...) .... Later (again) .... Ahhhhhhh. That's better... On with the reviews. A NIGHT IN MOTION by Cubic 22 Yeah, I'm reviewing it again (but this time with the correct title). It deserves it. It's one of the best records I've heard for months. Does for House what SEVEN WAYS 2 LOVE does for Club, and what DOMINATOR does for Rap. Between the three of these singles, you have the very elite, the creme de la creme, the premiere, the pinnacle of musical taste. NIGHT IN MOTION, admittedly isn't the most original of tunes, but it sure as hell is the best. It's got an addictive, listen to it forever quality to it too. (I'll be back). ..... Much, much later ..... Phew! That's better. Now where was I? Right, next review. AM THE CLUBSTER'S REVENGE (More M) CHILL TO THE PANIC by Deep C. A lively rap with an expertly composed tune. Recommended. THE WAVE OF THE FUTURE by Quadrophonia. Great, great house track in the same style as Quadrophonia. Powerful, fast and frantic track. I loved it, although the rap is nothing special. (Mind you, Ice/Hammer can't even touch this [!] ). OG ORIGINAL GANSTER by Ice-T A hard-as-hell rap track by the contraversial rapster. Recommended if you're into hardcore rap, but I can't help but think that this is old style and is slow and pretty dull. On the B side is BITCHES 2, which is more interesting, but is still depressing (!) and slow. I liked it, though! Rated "Good", since this is after all real, genuine, 100% hardcore rap, but not in the league of more exciting rapsters like Human Resolve. That's enough singles, I think. On to a new section: Club Classics AM THE CLUBSTER'S CLASSICS (Golden Oldies) MENTAL by The Manic MC's About 3 years old this one, although you wouldn't think it to listen to it. Refreshingly different from all the latest techno/house anthems, it's a very lively, upbeat tune, with a great drumbeat. Brilliantly composed. Seek this one out. PUSH IT by Salt 'n' Pepa This will go down in history as the rap that gained female rapsters their well deserved acceptance. Even though it's as old as the hills, it can still compete with today's best. For this reason, I recommend that you buy A BLITZ OF SALT 'N' PEPA HITS, an album which includes all their best raps, old and new, including PUSH IT, SHOWSTOPPA, and DO YOU WANT ME. PACIFIC STATE by 8O8 State Their debut single, this was different and innovative enough for them to gain automatic recognition. Still sounds as good today as ever. AM THE CLUBSTER'S CLASSICS (Golden Oldies) 20 SECONDS TO COMPLY by Silver Bullet Silver Bullet's violent, aggressive, psychopathic, manic style put him on the rap map immediately. Since, he's gone on to produce many more similarly fast 'n' furious raps (most remarkably UNDERCOVER ANARCHIST which recently got in the charts) and has now released an album which I recommend with all my heart. HUMANOID by Stakker Humanoid A sort of house version of Jean-Michel-Jarre, it can only be described as pure genius. If you can still find it, go and get it! (The Snowman Mix is available on DEEP HEAT '89) MEGAMIX by Fast Eddie Fast rap which epitomises the rap style of the time, it is still a worthy track today. ... I've been forced to mention (by Cookie) MEGABLAST by Bomb The Bass, which is admittedly pretty good. Not what I'd rate as AM THE CLUBSTER CONTINUES a classic, though. Whilst we're on the subject, Bomb The Bass are about to release a new album entitled UNKNOWN TERRITORY. They've drastically changed their style - expect more in the LOVE SO TRUE vein this time around, which although is not a house track - it's mainstream club music - is at least modern in style. RECOMMENDED RADIO LISTENING: Sunday: 7-8pm Key 103: "Bus' Dis" with Stu Allan (Rap) 9-10pm Key 103: "House Hour" with Stu Allan (House) Thursday:(Evenings) Radio One: Pete Tong (All Club music) Friday: 7:30-10pm Radio 1:"The Essential Selection" with Pete Tong (All Club Music) Saturday:8-9pm "The Bacardi Beat Dance Chart" with Stu Allan (Dance Music) 9-12mnt "Don't Touch That Dial" with Stu Allan (All Club Music) (Both Saturday's are on Picadilly Key 103FM) Until next time... .
A CITIZEN SWIFT 24 By Malcolm Phillips (colour) printer review. GM-Software (A member of TEAM SAM) Introduction. Not so long ago with regard to dot matrix printers, high quality meant high prices. Not any more thanks to printers such as the Citizen Swift 24. For almost what you then paid for a 9 pin printer that managed draft/nlq you are now able to purchase a 24 pin machine that will print in a variety of styles and at different speeds. For a little extra (it's always the same, isn't it) you can add colour, too. These printers have two vertical columns of 12 pin heads as opposed to a single column of 9 pins. Both single sheet and tractor fed paper is acceptable, with the nowadays almost obligatory paper parking facility. This I find really wonderful after my old printer (Citzen LSP 100), and all from a single keypress too! Macros The printer is equipped with memory not only for the incoming data, but for storing different configerations as "macros" (of which there are four). A macro is, in this context, a Citizen Swift 24 combination of printer set up commands. It is possible to "program" each macro with the printer's emulation, style (font,pitch,colour etc.), print mode (speed, text or graphics), and page layout (line spacing, form length, perf' skip and margins). All this is done from the front panel switches of which there are six. Above the switches is a LCD panel that keeps you in touch with what's going on, and how. The macros once set up, are retained in the printer's memory even after power off. You decide which will be the default macro on power up. Changing between macros is easy, again from the front panel. The advantages speak for themselves- whatever your requirements are- you are able to quickly go from one set up to another at the press of a button. If you can't remember exactly how you set up one, or all the macros, don't panic. Merely print them out! Again, another handy feature that saves you physically going through each macro's setting as viewed on the LCD panel/screen. Citizen Swift 24 Colour I won't bore you with the necessary details of fitting the kit, because it only takes about five seconds. You are then ready to experiment with the range of colours available (which can be quite extensive due to multiple ribbon passes in various permutations).I use the colour screen dump available from PBT Electronics and some of the shades are quite remarkable. As a matter of fact, it is supplied free if you purchase a colour printer from them. I did, and have not been dissapointed both with the printer and the service they offer. If you remove the colour ribbon and replace with a black only ribbon, the printer recognises this without you having to "tell" it from the front panel. Extras Colour kit apart, there are font cards available which merely plug into a port and immediately provide you with, yes you've guessed, a different font. Increase the resident 8K buffer to 40K by purchasing the 32K memory chip and free your computer when printing those really long files. Into mail merge? Then the Citizen Swift 24 sheet feeder is a must for you. Both semi and fully automatic are available, of which I obtained the latter. And very good it is too. I am able to change from continuous tractor fed paper to (automatic) single sheet printing at the press of a button! Price The best (lowest) I found at the time of buying (£296) was with PBT Electronics, although a phone call is advisable as I find printer prices fluctuate more than almost any other computer related hardware, and I wouldn't be surprised to learn it had dropped even lower. Specifications (just the ones that count) Straight out of the manual- so you can knock off around 10 cps as they always overestimate (i.e. lie). Print Speeds Emulation Draft 160 cps Epson LQ NLQ 53 IBM Proprinter NEC Citizen Swift 24 Fonts (resident) Font (IC card) Courier (Draft) Scriptum (NLQ) Times Roman (NLQ) Helvetica (NLQ) Courier (NLQ) Prestige Elite (NLQ) Conclusion First, the price was right (for me, anyway), and secondly the makers offer a two year warranty- not to be scoffed at. I compared the output against other 24 pin printers in the same price range, and quite honestly couldn't tell the difference, so my mind was made up. PBT were kind enough to lend me a SWIFT 9, when I was trying to make up my mind as to which printer I needed, so you could say that coloured (ooh!) my judgement, but I don't think so. Recommended SAN MOUSE - SAMCO , £39.99 Andy J. Well , what do you get for your money? First there's the mouse,of course,then there's an interface to plug into the mouse port on the back of the Coupe,and then you get the discs containing a revised Flash etc. Well the mouse is a large two buttoned mouse by Contriver with a small switch on the side set for the Atari.Included with the mouse is a mouse house.This I thought was a nice little touch. The mouse has miles and miles of lead (tail!) before it is contected to the interface. The interface is in the usual little white box.This I thought was a little large if all it's got to do is convert an 8 pin DIN plug to a 9 pin D-plug. On the accompanying disc there are three pieces of software... First there is a modified version of Flash,next there is the mouse driver and lastly there is a little game to keep you happy for a while. Well how good does it work? Well the mouse is very very fast,miles faster than Blue Alpha's mouse and I also think that it's faster than some mice that I've seen on the Amiga and some SAM MOUSE - SAMCO , £39.99 Andy J. PCs.The modified version of Flash works fairly well apart from the fact that if you use it to fast not a complete line is drawn only the start and finish.Also the buttons can be two sensitive because I can't get VIEW to work,the picture comes up and then it flashs back to the main menu in the blink of an eye. The game is called Slidy and was rewritten to use the mouse by Colin (I like the little FRED in the top right hand corner).It's quite a good little game that will keep you amused on a rainy day. Overall I think this mouse is the best apart from the size of the interface and the small problems with Flash,but as this will be updated sometime in the future these little problems should be cured easily.If all the software we're promised comes out then us SAM owners are in for a treat. THIS WAS A TOTALLY UNBIASED (AND EVEN UN-PROMPTED!) REVIEW OF THE SAMCO MOUSE. THE TEXT WHICH HAS BEEN EDITED OUT WAS NOT RELEVANT TO THE REVIEW (IT'S NOT A CRITICISM ANDY!) SO I CANNOT BE ACCUSED OF BIASED EDITING! PHONE BLUE ALPHA IF YOU DON'T BELIEVE ME! CM DL OutWrite - Chezron Software , £17.00 How many people, after buying their Coupe's, went out and brought "Tasword 2" - thinking that a SAM version would be a good investment? Then discovering that it was rather,erm ... c**p! I think the problem is, that since many SAM owners are Spectrum upgraders, many of us have taken our favourite Spectrum Word Pro (ie, Tasword), and have stuck with it. Unfortunately, although Tasword was good on the Spectrum, particularly the +3, the SAM version was another matter. However, Chezron (publishers of OUTLET - hence the name!) have released this new word pro. What's it like? Well, It has most of the features that "good ol'" Tasword has (and any other self respecting word pro, for that matter) such as 64 column text (but this is in mode 3, at last!) word wrapping, justification, block facilities, jump to top and bottom of text, page stepping, tabbing facilities, printer graphic controls, plus much more! DL OutWrite - Chezron Software , £17.00 Except, it has been written especially for the SAM, and thus is much more responsive than any other program available, and is a darn sight more faster with it! It also has useful options of changing the on-screen font (I can't test if it prints out in this font, as my printer is waiting for a print head!), which can make things more eye-catching. A few excellant fonts are supplied, and the hand-written font is especially great! Included is a utility to convert standard fonts, into the special format needed for the screen fonts. It also features,a "screen save" facility, which allows you to use the program, to design text screens. (although this does wipe off one of the HELP menus!) It has a simple and fast help menu (press INV), which lists the key presses needed. The command mode itself is simple - press EDIT, and a second key, to call the needed function. The program can also store a whopping 45k of text! Not bad, when compared to Tasword's 32k! (And, when I have used PROTEXT on the ST, that has resort to storing most of the document on disk, once you have passed the 32k mark! DL OutWrite - Chezron Software - £17.00 You can also merge in files, to a particular point in the document (although you have to insert enough blank lines first!, which is a rather odd lapse!) OutWrite has most things that a decent word pro should have. All it needs is a left and right margin, user definable tabs, a good "search and replace", and a little DOS interaction, then it would be beyond any complaints! Perhaps a Mail-Merge, and Spell-Checker would be a useful addition? Or am I asking for miracles? I really recommend this one, especially as OUTLET should be supporting it through their mag, although I suggest trying to pick it up cheaper at one of the "All Format" Shows! I personally think that this one should be treated as the "official" SAM Word Processor, at least until CP/M arrives, so we can use WordStar!! Particularly as, although it may not be the world's greatest "word pro", it is certainly the best one available for the Coupe! Overall Rating - 83% . SC SAMCO Mouse - SAMCO (!) , £39.99 Now, due to Colin's change of location (namely to SAMCO), he's asked me (cookie!) to write a review of the mouse because all you lot out there might think because he works at SAMCO, he'd be biased. So here goes. What you get for your money is a lovely jiffy bag, within which you will find a Contriver "Two-in-One" mouse (with mouse holder to stick to your TV or monitor), a Mouse Interface (which is a bit bigger than a 3.5" disc)9, your guarantee card and a disc with some mouse software on it. Firstly, though, the bad news. All of you who were waiting patiently for a 3-button mouse will have to make do with a 2-button one. The good news is that I have no idea what use a third button would be anyway, so that makes up for the lack of one. (good logic eh ? - Ed) The mouse itself that you get in the package is very good quality (Si Hindle claims that it isn't as good as a Naksha mouse, but I don't believe him). It looks good (white with a green logo), and fits in with the rest of the coupe stuff quite well (apart from the green bit). The mouse may look good, but it feels even better. It fits into the curve of your palm, and the SC SAMCO Mouse - SAMCO , £39.99 shape lets you rest your hand on it, with your wrist on the desk (or whatever). Now that we've gone over the aesthetics, how does it respond? The answer is excellently. The response from this mouse is very quick, and gives smooth results (I'm going from the Mouse Driver program on the Mouse Software disc for this.) The hardware taken care of, lets look at the software. In the package, so that you can mess about with the mouse before people start to write software for it, are three programs. One is a Slidy puzzle game, one is a mouse version of Flash! (the one on the system disc won't work), and the other is a Basic Moue Driver - a simple program to demonstrate how to use the moue in your own programs. The version of Flash! I got in my package was a pre-release version - I'll still tell you about it, but hope that someone rewrites it before it is released. Remember - Flash! may be all sorted out before it gets to you. I had a few try outs with Flash! and was none too impressed. The results from the Basic Mouse Driver program are better - and SC SAMCO Mouse - SAMCO , £39.99 Flash! is written in machine code! I don't know about you, but I don't think it bodes well when a Basic program does a job better than an M/Code one! Using the Pencil on Flash! gives a series of straight lines with some gaps in which follow the pointer. Ugh! Ok, I've given up on Flash!, how about the rest? The Slidy program had to be the highlight of the software I got in my package - it's great fun (albeir silent, with a pointer that flickers a lot). I can only get to Level 8 (out of ten), but this game is pretty good, and shows how you could use the mouse in your programs - the original used keys. Ratings : Response : 10/10 Aesthetics : 8/10 Software : 6/10 Overall : 9/10 The mouse is great - I'd recommend it to anyone - but it is seriously hampered as a drawing tool by the version of Flash which is included. Prince Of Persia - Revelation , £14.99 Unfortunately, I have been forced to review this because it has not been released yet, so I am "forbidden" from sending out a review copy to anyone. However I'll do my best to keep it unbiased - considering it's got me bored stiff playtesting it!! The King of Persia has gone away for a dirty weekend, and in his absence, Jaffar, the wicked Sultan has taken over. Old Jaffar also happens to have captured the King's daughter ( the Princess of Persia ?!) and tries to have his wicked way. But the Princess is loyal to her lover and denies Jaffar - who then gives her a whole hour to think about it, after which she will be forced to marry him. Nice plot eh? In case you were wondering where you come into this typical scenario,you happen to be in love with the Princess and are completely set on rescueing her (actually, you want to become the Prince and then knock of the King so you can take the throne!). Being the miserable old sod he is, Jaffar has shut you in his dungeons - which happen to be littered with tremendous drops, lethal spikes, energy, poison, gates, falling platforms, dozens of Jaffar personal guards and even mice!!!!! Prince Of Persia - Revelation , £14.99 Controlling the Prince is a pure delight, he is superbly animated - all 140 frames were taken directly from the PC version, the Amiga and ST versions only used HALF THAT NUMBER OF FRAMES! So now you can show up your 16-bit owning friends! You have to open portcullises by stepping on triggers and then dashing through them before they close. You have to be as nimbler as a mouse on a razor edge on some of the later levels, when you climb up to six screens upwards and have to jump huge gaps and then stop yourself before you go skidding over the other edge of the platform. You lose energy by falling more than the height of yourself, so the bottles of energy are crucial to the game. The highlight of the whole game on other versions has to be the swordfighting - you have to swordfight each opponent to the death before you can pass him. And we ain't talking a few seconds of fighting, we is talking like fully fledged sword whacking, blocking, thrusting, skewering etc all with neat little sound FX (brother!!) In fact, the whole game is very nice from a sonic point of view - the title screen music (that many of you may Prince Of Persia - Revelation , £14.99 have heard on the hotline) is really good, and there are also little ditties whenever you drink a potion, collect your sword, come near an enemy, kill an enemy or complete one of the 13 levels. In between some of the levels, there are "movie scenes", these entail the ongoing story of Jaffar and the fair Princess - and very nice they are too. I'll admit it, the graphics are perfect, the gameplay is superb, the whole thing is so much like the original I could cry! This version is very easily mistakable for any of the 16-bit versions. But why should you believe me? Crash gave it 96% - that makes it one of their top ten best ever games!!! You don't have to take my word for it - you could wait until everyone else gets their paws on a copy and SAMCO are flooded with orders, but I'll leave that entirely up to you. If you don't buy it, what I should have for you next month will make you buy it!!!!! Overall : 93% Next Month - FRED 13 As I'm running late with this issue, I can't really forecast what I'm going to have next month. But I will try my measely little best. I will hopefully have a few goodies up for review, like Keypress, F16 Combat Pilot, SAMDISC, the new improved SC_Filer (99% M/C!) and possibly some of these games I can't tell you about - I'll even try for some screenshots since we havn't had any for months! Simon Cooke has done a brilliant new Freview system, and is working on a new menu thing with all fancy bits and bobs - getting very technical here you see! Interviews with Adrian Parker, Chris White and Sean Conran may appear - ie I've got them all it's just a case of typing them in!! PS they are Blue Alpha, Prince Of Persia and the music man respectively. Possibly a Trip-a-tron 5 and one or two goodies from AXE, as well as all the usual bitties that I can't (for the life of me) remember. Oh well. See you later. CM SAMDICE - Kobrahsoft , £12.99 Based on the version for the +3, this is the superlative disc user's companion. You can do almost anything to a disc with this - it can "intelligently" unerase, let you alter anything on the disc in the easiest possible way and a host of other features. What I think is that this is yet another utility that is handy but is not actually needed - you could do most of it from BASIC with a little knowledge. Although SAMDICE tends to take disc care and editing further than the likes of Disc Doctor. The whole thing is driven from a series of menus with tons of information - like when you edit sectors, it dissasembles the code automatically for you. If you don't already have a Disc Doctor and you do more than jus play games then I would recommend this. Kobrahsoft , [redacted] Previews / Stop Press Ummm Sorry I lied. If anyone has any COMPLETELY BERRRRILIANT software that you think would be worthy of me publishing then please get in touch. If you don't know of any, then you should! Did you know that, unlike Scotland, after 2 in the morning (even on a Friday night) Swansea is dead!!!! It's shameful - at least in Dundee after the pubs shut, there are still plenty of clubs open - but not in Wales!!!! Remember those games I told you about - one of them happens to be Splat! by Incentive and is programmed by Colin Jordan. So far he's programmed the editor and done the graphics but MAYBE by next month I'll get a couple of piccies from him as well!!
Machine Code Tutorial #7
Greetings one and all, for the seventh time in as many articles. Unfortunately, I can't think of any witty openings, so let's just get straight down to business, shall we? This month I've decided to demonstrate some graphic routines which look pretty complicated, but after some careful thought are really not too bad at all. Number One.. The Scrolly Cylinder Type Thing ============================================ This is a prime example of something which we see all the time on fancy computers, but we could never imagine an 8-bit machine like the coupe to manage. Unless we cheat, that is. Basically this routine takes a mode 4 screen and wraps it around a 64 line cylinder to create a 3D effect. With a little more effort it can be animated to produce a very nice effect indeed. Firstly, we have to work out how we'll go about solving the problem, and this is my solution. The routine will only alter the graphics vertically, so we can forget about any effect on the piccy horizontally by the curve of the cylinder. To create a curved image, therefore, we have to be sneaky. There is a table of offsets at the end of the program and this is used in the following way... 1> The first line of the piccy is copied onto the screen. 2> Instead of just moving onto the next line of data, we jump the number of lines specified in the offset table. 3> We move onto the next line of screen and repeat the process for all 64 lines. The routine manages to distort the image in such a way that it looks round on the screen. Now, the proggie.. ORG #E000 ; In the space after a screen in HMPR SCROLLY DI LD (SPSTORE),SP LD SP,STKSPACE IN A,(LMPR) EX AF,AF' ; See below LD A,%00101011 ; Page 11 with no ROM OUT (LMPR),A LD HL,(SCROLLPOS) LD DE,#8000 ; Top of screen - you could change ; this to another area. LD IX,OFFSETS LD B,32 ; No. of lines in top half SC1 PUSH BC LD C,(IX+0) LD B,(IX+1) INC IX INC IX ADD HL,BC ; Add on the offset CALL WRAPROUND INC L INC L INC L INC L INC E INC E INC E INC E LD BC,120 ; LDIR is a block instruction that LDIR ; copies BC bytes from HL to DE. INC L INC L INC L INC HL INC E INC E INC E INC DE POP BC DJNZ SC1 LD B,32 ; No. of lines in lower half SC2 PUSH BC CALL WRAPROUND INC L INC L INC L INC L INC E INC E INC E INC E LD BC,120 LDIR INC L INC L INC L INC HL INC E INC E INC E INC DE DEC IX DEC IX LD C,(IX+0) LD B,(IX+1) ADD HL,BC POP BC DJNZ SC2 LD HL,(SCROLLPOS) ; This bit adds 1 line to the LD DE,128 ; start of the graphic data, ADD HL,DE ; to give an impression of CALL WRAPROUND ; rotation. LD (SCROLLPOS),HL EX AF,AF' OUT (LMPR),A LD SP,(SPSTORE) EI RET WRAPROUND LD A,H ; This subroutine alters HL CP 96 ; if it goes over the end of RET C ; the graphic data, so that SUB 96 ; it 'wraps wround'. LD H,A RET SPSTORE DW 0 DS 14 STKSPACE DW 0 OFFSETS DW 384,384,256,256,256,128,256,128,128 DW 128,0,128,0,0,128,0 DW 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 SCROLLPOS DW 0 A couple of points - all the sections with lots of INC L's and INC E's are to avoid copying 4 bytes (8 pixels) at either edge of the screen. If the background of the piccy is left black (or another colour), and in these 16 pixels the egdes of a roller are drawn, the whole effect is much better. LDIR is a block instruction that copies BC bytes from HL to DE, and moves both HL and DE on that amount of bytes. BC becomes zero. I don't think I've mentioned it in any previous issue, but aside from the regular registers, there is an alternative set. Only one set can be used at any one time, and the commands for switching between them are:- EX AF,AF' - Switches just for A and F, used above to store the original accumulator value. EXX - Switches for all the rest. If you reckon the final effect isn't just right, you could change the values in the offset table. Each entry must be a multiple of 128. Also, you can change the size of the roller. There are two LD B,32 instructions - one for each half of the roller. If you do change this, make sure there are enough entries in the offset table (half the total number of lines) Number Two.. The Expansion and Compression Routines =================================================== I remember seeing a BASIC expansion routine in FRED a while ago. That was pretty slow (in fact, VERY slow!) due to the fact it was written in BASIC. Here is a routine to take a window 128 pixels long and 96 pixels down, and to expand it to fill the entire screen. ORG #4000 ; In system heap, like last month EXPAND DI IN A,(VMPR) AND 31 OUT (HMPR),A LD HL,(SEED) ; System var set by RANDOMIZE LD DE,#E000 LD A,96 EX1 LD BC,64 ; Firstly, copy the window into LDIR ; the 8k workspace after the LD BC,128-64 ; screen ADD HL,BC DEC A JR NZ,EX1 ; LD HL,#8000 LD DE,#E000 LD C,96 EX2 LD B,64 EX3 LD A,(DE) ; Get byte AND %11110000 ; Isolate 1st nibble LD (HL),A ; Store it RLCA ; Rotate into other nibble RLCA RLCA RLCA OR (HL) ; Merge together LD (HL),A ; And plant on screen SET 7,L ; Move onto next line LD (HL),A ; And store it there too. RES 7,L ; Move back INC L ; And on one byte LD A,(DE) AND %00001111 ; Repeat the whole process for the LD (HL),A ; other nibble. RLCA RLCA RLCA RLCA OR (HL) LD (HL),A INC L INC DE DJNZ EX3 ; Repeat this for the whole line INC H ; Move down two lines on screen. DEC C JR NZ,EX2 ; And go round another 95 times EI RET SEED EQU #5C76 This is pretty simple - copy the window into a workspace, then take each pixel in turn and plot it into the four pixels onto the new screen. Right, now the squash routine. It does exactly the same, but in reverse. ORG #4000 SQUASH DI IN A,(VMPR) ; Put screen in HMPR AND 31 OUT (HMPR),A LD HL,#8000 LD DE,#E000 LD C,96 ; 96 lines in squashed version, SQ1 LD B,64 ; each 64 bytes wide. SQ2 LD A,(HL) ; Get 1st nibble of 1st byte, and INC L ; second nibble of next byte. XOR (HL) ; Merge then together - see below. AND %11110000 ; And store (in temporary XOR (HL) ; workspace) LD (DE),A INC DE DJNZ SQ2 POP HL INC H ; Move on two lines; ie. miss one RES 7,L ; out to compress. DEC C JR NZ,SQ1 ; COPY LD DE,#8000 ; Screen address to copy to. LD HL,#E000 LD A,96 C1 LD BC,64 ; Copy from workspace. LDIR EX DE,HL ; These lines blank outthe rest of LD B,64 ; the line - can be omitted. C2 LD (HL),C ; . INC HL ; . DJNZ C2 ; . EX DE,HL ; . DEC A JR NZ,C1 EX DE,HL ; And these blank out the rest of LD DE,#B001 ; the screen. Again, they might LD (HL),0 ; be unwanted. LD BC,#2FFF ; . LDIR ; . EI RET A couple of points again - if you want to copy to a different bit of the screen, omit the lines for blanking bits out, or you'll get awfully confused. There is a handy little bit of code above called a BIT MERGE - the lines XOR (HL); AND %11110000; XOR (HL) These three steps are useful when we want to copy some bits of one register over only some of the bits of another. Eg. if we had a screen address in HL and wanted to add on only the second bit of the accumulator, we'd go: XOR (HL) AND %11110000 ; Show the bits of (HL) to preserve XOR (HL) Well, that's yer lot again for this month. See you next month with more of the same. So it's goodbye for him, and it's goodbye from me. Goodbye! [END]